I’r going to give two things about the alignment valley and soils in general. The next speaker is going to be one of my PhD students who just recently finished up and we’re going to be talking about her research into the different soils and the effect on terroir.
Then grid were Talat and I have a paper that recently came out he’s going to follow up also looking at soils and so are in the valley, and then we’re going to go up to the gorge. And so this is actually in the gorge. Taken from Underwood Mountain, this is four weig yeah who is an Underwood, and so I’m going to be. Let’s see there we go. What I’m going to be doing is giving you just a little bit of background and then definition of terroir Gregor did a great job, because I totally agree with that.
You had there before talking about soils and their relationship to terroir and then end up with the the terroir the planet Valley. I have been involved in wines ever since I was in university. I went to university in California called Stanford and the fens, and I would go up to this fledgling new area to go wine-tasting. It was just starting out, you could do the whole valley from one end to the other end is called the Napa Valley.
This was back in the 60s. You can’t do that today and it’s a lot more developed there. Then I finished up and I went to Switzerland and I taught in Switzerland for five years. I actually made wine in the classes because it teaches a lot of biology and chemistry at the same time, and so here’s a picture of me in Switzerland in 1973, I am professor, various professors always have to publish it. So my first people I ever published was in the Journal of college science teaching in 1976 and if science can be fun and tasty while making in the lab – and then I grew up here, I’m a 6th generation origami and came back here in 1990 and for The last 26 years I’ve been at Portland State University, not too far away, and I got me involved with soils because I’m a pathologist there geologist and looking at the soils of wine country and so any time.
I give a talk on tomorrow and I give quite a few I always define what today is and always have different definitions. They’ll use this exact thing. So thank you for doing that number, one grape varieties that we have got in the lab now here we have 12 different varieties. We have the from our valence bill, but then all of the Dijon quarter lends to the go along with that, and then you have root stocks that are involved in there.
Secondly, I’m going to be focusing in on geology and soils. Yesterday, we’ve had huge amounts on climate, and then they knows the importance of climate that we have got here and soil hydrology. Here you basically driver and farm, and so you need to have a little bit of silt and clay in the soil in order to hold water for the end of the season when it gets very, very dry because we have three months are basically low rainfall and Then physiography elevations are very very important here are two numbers are generally about three 100 metres below that we, that was either floods, not a good idea and then above 300 meters and you have a reduction in the the chances for ripening, but they if the climate Seems to warm up it that keeps rising up, and so this is what I traditionally have been calling terroir, but there are two other factors that are huge huge.
The wine question earlier today talked about all the decisions that the wine maker has to make and it’s unbelievable. They control the whole thing here in Oregon in a good wine maker, sits back and lets the wine make themselves, but in a difficult year, like 2007 and 2011, where we had a clean of climate, the whole time and what of the winemaker has to step up? They make all the decisions from yeast and oak and many things like that and their vineyard management and again Christian mentioned all of the different differences that we have got.
Those two are very very important for, but for me I don’t consider those especially terroir. When I talk about terra, I always talked about the the taste of the place. A lot of people use sense of the place. Thank you, the French, for this term, which is absolutely wonderful, its authority under to the vineyard. We talked about all of those I mentioned before the geology, I’m going to be focusing here on the soils, the texture, everything that we have got: the orientation of salt, etc, interesting, our impact on the rest of the world.
The terroir is now being used for so many different foods, whether it is coffee hops, you are in the land of microbe eaters and now everybody thoughts about the. Why of the hops that we have got? I do the talk in Vermont back east and they talked about the terroir of the different maple syrups cheeses and the list goes on and on and now in Oregon we have started to build a map or scoop in the terroir.
Why? Because there is now legal in this state, and so mmm assistant professors is taking that over and especially in the southern part of the state. When I talk about to aguar a great night of discourse with Alex Martin, who was a geologist and Lara back from England – and we really need to talk about that – we were talking about. First of all, he said first of all, there’s minerality an emitter, allottee is, and you can actually taste the quotes or the right or the of the slate that is in the wine and here in the Willamette Valley.
I don’t think we can. I think we have differences in flavors and the differences in flavors. We can attribute to the geology and the soils that we have got in addition to all of the other things that happen that are out there and also, as you know, we have three major, transparent grapes where the tail comes to flow water comes through and all Great, but especially when our heavier Reds, we are over ripening them and they are being overshadowed in the terroir.
Is that coming through as well but reasons the Germans have been telling us that, for years and years and all of the different vineyards and the different flavors, that you have one, the geology, changes, etc? Chardonnay is another one that does this, but many times we over up this, but here in Oregon we’re backing off on the Oconee and getting some of those flavors coming through, and then we feel spoon red grape pinot noir those we can show to why I’ve given Talks about the world talking about my favorite place the case.
Differences in terroir is the Galant Valley, and that’s why I welcome all of you to origin, because, hopefully you will be able to taste these differences. While you are here whether I great winemakers the earth leaders here is 10 right and he was on the front page, the cover of the Wine Spectator this past year and they said a master of Pinot Noir in Oregon. But a quote that is inside and also in the article that he did he said to understand.
Oregon wines is to understand Oregon geology and it is very important. The geology and the soils that you have got he has been my hero for a long time. He was one of the first guys to actually bet the soils on the back label of his bottle in his single vineyard types that he had the three wrath, one of the original four modern winemakers in Oregon. That percent of the quality of the wine comes from the vineyards.
He’s a tourist, 20 % comes from the winery. Also, I wanted to point to the Willamette Valley and nobody showed graves for classifications, that we have a cool requirement in intermediate warm and hot, that the imamat Valley is one of the great examples of cool climate. When we do this, what we do is we? So what types of grapes do you know we find in this particular Arian is primarily the big, the peels and the German styles and the chardonnays voters are traditionally grown in the cool climate type of area and that’s what we would been specializing in for a long Time and if you are going to open them, develop a village anywhere in the world, they have at least 180 frost-free days remain nutrients.
You don’t have to it’s for my friends who are agricultural people who say you just have to have enough many nutrients to keep that plant alive. You don’t want to in them, because you get too much vigor, and this is something that you want to reduce. You aren’t well-drained soils, your perfect failure to seven to eight degrees, slope and many of the innovations that we talked about before are the ripening.
A frost avoidance is another problem that you have back, and so you need to get into and and their minimum temperatures that you have got when we talk about soils. One of my heroes is Robert White, who is here, and he tells us that we have ten macronutrients and subscribe for nutrients that we need to have in the soils for proper groups that we have got. Also. We focus in on those plus up the trace elements, because we have a feeling that they are going to be affecting the the grapes that we have when we look at the soils, the depth of the soil.
There are ten different things I wanted to highlight. First of all, some plants really like deep soils like the chard lays, where is this arise like the most shallow soil pH, is very important. You want to America pH of the soil between 5.5 and there, when it’s too high than the epoch of our chakras open loaded, eases, reduce load P. More phosphorous below that, so any to you will affect the uptake of the phosphorus texture is going to affect your water.
Holding capacity structure is going to affect the real penetration and also moving machinery around rage. You want to have well-drained soils. Clay content is going to affect your penetration, the color of the soils, the darker it is the warmer either would be emitting heat and therefore speeding up the ripening color is indicating, while varying types of soils walking. This is also going to affect the maturation that you have got to like chapter lift the top if the limestone is going to affect the reading lips that you have got, although by this lets end up talking about oregan back in 1961, this guy was the first One to plant the wire is David Nutt.
It was right just down the road from store where we were last night and eventually he took his pinot noir to the international pinot noir competition. Didn’t we what is going on here? Well, it was all in place. I mean it has developed since that period of time, and so today we have over 700 wineries and 960 vineyards and the ratio of red the white, and the state is like that in here in the valley, cooler climates here, you’ve got your pinot noir.
That is the king of the queen of all of the grapes that we have got so. Here’s the atlantic valley we’ve some divided it into sub AV a’s and last night we were in the vendée, Hills, subway VA, primarily volcanic soils. Tonight we’re going to be in the McMinnville sub to a VA. Yesterday we looked to the south from the mountain stuffs out that hills as a baby and then we’re going to be reppin. Shahira mountains have a VA and these are defined by soils and geology.
We have the interesting thing in Oregon: the winemakers work together when they submitted all of these several years. They turned them all in the same way saying look, we are not competing, we just have differences and we want to highlight those that we have and so back in the nineties. Nobody knew that we were going. What were the soils that were there? So I started out with a grad student and look at the the soils of the distribution that we had and then returned that pop out.
The first one is what we called the soil series. The second one is the geology and the third one is the soil classification. The joy was the largest one. The relatives he was set at more than later at Norwood was third, and so that is a basalt sedimentary in Limassol. Yes, that is involved in that, and there were over 23 different soils that were found here in the valley people. We started publicizing the great debate which soil produces the best Pinot Noir and originally focused on, and now we focus in on three and then B is at the giant oil of it is our state’s oil I’ll start about.
The second did that by me can be River basalt. Is it the relativity soil which is developed at marine sediments or is it the law? Would soil the Museum of flood sediments, the flat land that we have down here and as about 9 % of all vineyards, but they do they have where too much bigger, too much calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium that we have and because we do dryland farming. We here’s a weathered web soils to reduce that the Columbia needed massage, where we were last year.
Their volcanic, where the ball feels there are 303, were about 500 kilometers away here, and Eastern the hot spot was that there’s now underneath Yellowstone National Park flowed over here and they those soils are two three million years old. We are primarily the joy when you get shallower ones, we call it the tile and then it gets really short shallow. The whitsel, the marine sediments, are primarily uplifted, sandstones and shales and if you get a chance bound to see ray rises, map of the geology of the area, he has an incredible here, there’s a primarily in rural county, a VA where that originally as well apparently, but Now this has then subdivided the mailman is the diamond that women every we still have relativity, but the res no and do P we’re going to be on that on Wednesday night are the part of time Bell.
Tyler’s you go further south there, mostly alpha Sol’s and then the window and one that we have on the answer. The mountain is primarily called the moment soils. I want to stress that these are all misses. These are up to a hundred thousand years old and they have little pisa lights in it. These peas are lights, are iron, manganese and silicon patience. I’ve got a little bottle base on there. If anybody wants to see those states oil.
This is the joy saw about this is the real aplenty type of soil that we have got and then just to end with what I just thought. I would mention this taste and what you want to do is place the differences for me many times when I would taste the joy source, it would come out with mainly red fruits, the raspberries, the red, plum, spirits and stuff like that, and also in the early Days, web colors weather as the marine sediments were much darker in color and and the darker fruits the blackberries.
The back chair is the backbones. The right answers that your geologist you only drink wine out of a box. What do you know? It is primarily food driven flavors on the basalt soils and Flores price on the others. The the relevant soils are kind of in between that. You have got so be sure to test these soils and paste them, because I think that you will really enjoy them and I’m going to end right there.
Thank you very much. You you