The history of El Salvador begins with several Mesoamerican nations, especially the coast, Catholics, as well as the lenka and Meyer in the early 16th century. The Spanish Empire conquered the territory incorporating it into the Viceroyalty of New Spain ruled from Mexico City.
In 1821, the country achieved independence from Spain as part of the first Mexican Empire, only to further secede as part of the Federal Republic of Central America in 1823. Upon the Republic’s dissolution, in 1841, El Salvador became sovereign until forming a short-lived union with Honduras and Nicaragua called the greater Republic of Central America, which lasted from 1895 to 1898 from the late 19th to the mid-20th century.
El Salvador endur’d chronic political and economic instability, characterized by Cruz revolts and a succession of authoritarian rulers. Persistent socio-economic inequality and civil unrest culminated in the devastating Salvadoran Civil War 1979 to 1992, which was fought between the military, led government and a coalition of left-wing guerrilla groups. The conflict ended with a negotiated settlement that established a multi-party constitutional republic which remains in place to this day.
El Salvador’s economy was historically dominated by agriculture, beginning with the indigo plant Anil in Spanish, the most important crop during the colonial period and followed their RAF to buy coffee which, by the early 20th century, accounted for 90 % of export earnings. Part one before the Spanish conquest, before the Spanish conquest, the area that is known as El Salvador was composed of three indigenous states and several principalities in central El Salvador, where the indigenous inhabitants that peoples all the peoples, a tribe of the nomadic people of now.
Where that was settled there for a long time, the people were a determined people who stoutly resisted Spanish efforts to extend their dominions. Southward, the region of the East was populated and then governed by the lanka’s. The North Zone of the Lemper High River was populated and governed by the justice and Mayan people. Their culture was similar to that of their Aztec and Mayan neighbors. Several notable archaeological sites contain dwellings and other evidence of daily life.
1,400 years ago. These were found preserved for Neath 6m 20 feet of volcanic ash, our two Spanish conquest, 1524 to 1525, the first Spanish attempt to control Elsinore EO of cars, Caitlyn or the lordship of cows Caitlyn failed in 1524, when Pedro B Alvarado was forced to retreat by Pitbull Warriors led biking at lai cattle and Prince atonal in the Battle of occur juggler in 1525. He returned and succeeded in bringing the district under control of the audience or of Mexico.
Part three Spanish rule 1525 to 1609 Pedro de Alvarado named the area for Jesus Christ. El salvador, the savior, he was appointed its first governor, a position he held until his death. In 1541, the area was under the authority of a short-lived audience of panama from 1538 to 1543, when most of Central America was placed under a new audience of Guatemala, part for independence, 1821. In the early 19th century, Napoleon’s occupation of Spain led through the outbreak of revolts, all across Spanish America.
In New Spain, all of the fighting by those seeking independence was done in the center of that area from 1810 to 1821. What today is central Mexico once the Viceroy was defeated in the capital city today, Mexico City in 1821, the news of the independence were sent to all the territories of New Spain, including the in tendencies of the former captaincy of Guatemala. Accepting this as a fact, El Salvador joined the other Central American in tendencies in a joint declaration of independence from Spain.
The public proclamation was done through the act of Independence in 1821. After the Declaration of Independence, it was the intention of the New Spain Parliament to establish a Commonwealth whereby the king of Spain Ferdinand via the second, would also be emperor of New Spain, but in which both countries were to be governed by separate laws and with their Own legislative offices should the king refused the position.
The law provided for a member of the House of Bourbon to accede to the New Spain throne Ferdinand VII ii, however, did not recognize the independence and said that spain would not allow any other european prince to take the throne of new spain by request of parliament. The president of the regency, a ghost india Tobit, was proclaimed emperor of new spain, but the Parliament also decided to rename New Spain as Mexico.
The Mexican Empire was the official name given to this mono aquel regime from 1821 to 1823. The territory of the Mexican Empire included the Continental in tendencies and provinces of New Spain proper, including those of the former captaincy General of Guatemala. El Salvador, fearing incorporation into Mexico, petitioned the United States government for statehood, but in 1823 a revolution in Mexico arrested, Emperor agustín de Iturbide II and a new Mexican Congress voted to allow the Central American in tendencies to decide their own fate.
That year, the United Provinces of Central America was formed of the five Central American in tendencies under general Manuel Rosales. The in tendencies took the new name of States in 1832, Anastasio okie, no led an indigenous revolt against career lows and mestizos in Santiago, non ul Co. A small town in the province of La Paz, the source of the discontent of the indigenous people, was the constant abuse and the lack of land to cultivate.
The problem of land distribution has been the source of many political conflicts in Salvadoran history. The Central American Federation was dissolved in 1838 and El Salvador became an independent republic from indigo to coffee displacement. El Salvador’s landed elite ended on production of a single export crop indigo. This led the elite to be attracted to certain lands while leaving other lands, especially those around former volcanic eruptions to the poor subsistence farming and the Indian communes.
In the middle of the nineteenth century, however, indigo is replaced by chemical dyes. The landed elite replaced this crop with a newly demanded product coffee, the lands that had once been dependent for the product, indigo, we’re suddenly quite valuable. The elite controlled legislature and President passed vagrancy laws that removed people from their land under the great majority of Salvadorans became lenders.
Their former lands were absorbed into the coffee plantations, thinkers Hector, Lindo Fuentes, book titled, weak foundations. The economy of El Salvador in the 19th century asserts that the parallel process of state building and expansion of the coffee industry resulted in the formation of an oligarchy that was to rule El Salvador during the 20th century part for independence. Chapter 1: the oligarchy, the oligarchy that have controlled El Salvador’s history were all but feudal, lords.
Although the Constitution was amended repeatedly in favor of the feudal lords in one eight five, five one, eight six, four one, eight seven one one, eight seven, two 1880, 1883 and 1886. Several elements remained constant throughout the wealthy. Landowners were granted supermajority power in the national legislature and economy, for example, the 1824 Constitution provided for a unicameral legislature of seventy deputies in which 42 seats were set aside for the landowners, the president selected from the landed elite was also granted significant power throughout each of El Salvador’s fourteen regional departments had a governor appointed by the president.
The rapid changes in the Constitution are mainly due to the attempts of various presidents to hold on to power. For example, President Dorado barrios created a new constitution to extend his term limit. Coffee gave birth to the oligarchy in the late 19th century, and economic growth has revolved around them ever since the 14 families. Last Catorce families is a referenced with the oligarchy which controlled most of the land and wealth in El Salvador during the 19th and 20th centuries.
With names, including de Sola, latch he’ll do ns Dalton Rey Gallardo, Queen Nona’s and silver ax end. Last 35 years, the men of economic power in El Salvador have transformed themselves landowning agricultural exporters converted into powerful financiers. The riches of El Salvador have been reconsent rated in a few hands, an event without precedent in the history of this country or the Central American region from the 14 oligarchic families of the past century now capitalized distributed among eight powerful business groups before the commencement of The civil war in 1980, the Salvadoran economy, revolved around three agricultural products, coffee which was preeminent sugar cane and cotton.
These defined the life of this small country that had a population of no more than three million inhabitants. Eight business conglomerates now dominate economic life in El Salvador and they are largely owned by the descendants of original 14 families of the coffee oligarchy. Those 8 business groups are grupo, Cass, Kaitlyn, Bern, Agricola, Banco self, at Orono, Banco de comercio grupo, a ghazal grupo Poma, grupo de Sola and grupo Hill part 5, military dictatorships, 1931 to 1979 between 1931, the year of general Maximiliano hernández, Martinez’s, coupe and 1944, when he Was deposed, there was brutal suppression of rural resistance.
The most notable event was the 1932 Salvadoran peasant uprising, headed by Farah bundo Marty, Chi Feliciano armor from the Eze Alko tribe and chief Francisco Chico Sanchez from Chihuahua is Alko subdivision the government retaliation commonly referred to as la matanza. The slaughter which followed after the days of protest in this mat arms are approximately 40,000 indigenous people and political opponents were murdered, imprisoned or exiled until 1980.
Albert, Juan Salvador and temporary president was an Army officer. Periodic presidential elections were seldom free or fair from the 1930s to the 1970s authoritarian governments, employed political repression and limited reform to maintain power. Despite the trappings of democracy, the National conciliation party was in power from the early 1960 until 1979 general Fidel Sanchez Hernandez was president from 1967 to 1972 colonel Arturo Molina from 1972 to 1977, and the last one was general carlos alberto romero from 1977 to 1979.
During the 1970s, there was great political instability in the 1972 presidential election opponents of military rule united under jose napoleon Duarte leader of the Christian Democratic Party PDC. Amid widespread fraud, droite as broad-based reform movement was defeated, subsequent protests and an attempted coup, a crushed and duarte exiled. These events eroded hope of reform through democratic means and persuaded those opposed to the government that armed insurrection was the only way to achieve change.
Part six Salvadoran Civil War, 1982 1992. In 1979. The reformist Revolutionary Government hunted took power, both the extreme right and the extreme left now disagreed with the government and increased political violence quickly turned into a civil war, the initially poorly trained Salvadoran armed forces. Esf also engaged in repression and indiscriminate killings, the most notorious of which was the el mozote massacre.
In December 1981, the United States supported the government and Cuba and other communist states supported the insurgents now organized as the Farah boon doe Marti National Liberation Front, FML n. The Chapultepec Peace Accords marked the end of the war in 1992, and FMLN became one of the major political parties in accordance with the peace agreements. The Constitution was amended to prohibit the military from playing an internal security role, except under extraordinary circumstances.
Demobilization of Salvadoran military forces generally proceeded on schedule throughout the process. The Treasury, Police, National Guard and National Police were abolished and military intelligence functions were transferred to civilian control by 1993 nine months ahead of schedule. The military had cut personnel from the wartime high of 63,000 to the level of 32,000 required by the Peace Accords by 1999.
Esf strength stood at less than 15,000, including uniformed and non uniformed personnel consisting of personnel in the Army, Navy and Air Force. A purge of military officers accused of human rights abuses and corruption was completed in 1993 in compliance with the ad hoc commission’s recommendations, the military’s new doctrine, professionalism and complete withdrawal from political and economic affairs leave it’s one of the most respected institutions in El Salvador.
Citation needed more than 35,000 eligible beneficiaries from among the former guerrillas and soldiers who fought in the war, but not all received land under the peace accord mandated land transfer program which ended in January 1997. The majority of them also received agricultural credits, part 7 postwar period 1990. To present the FMLN participated in the 1994 presidential election as a political party, armando Calderon salt, the rren, a candidate won the election.
During his rule, Calderon Sol implemented a plan of privatization of several large state enterprises and other neoliberal policies. The FMLN emerged strengthened from the legislative and municipal elections of 1997, where they won the mayority of san salvador. However, internal divisions in the process of electing a presidential candidate damage to the party’s image, Harare n, again won the presidency in the election of March.
The 7th 1999, with its candidate Francisco Guillermo Flores Perez in the presidential elections of March, the 21st 2004 Harare na was victorious again this time with the candidate Elias Antonio Sarka Gonzales securing the party’s fourth consecutive term in the same election economists, a novel, Manal barniz de Escobar became el salvador’s first female. Vice president. The election result also marked the end of the minor parties, PCN PDC and CD, which failed get the 3 % required by electoral law to maintain their registration as parties.
Fifteen years after the piece of courts, the democratic process in El Salvador rests on a precariously balanced system since the legislative assembly degreed and honesty after the accords. As a result of this amnesty, no one responsible for crimes carried out before during and after the war has been convicted in the post would period. El Salvador began to have problems with high crime, Lara’s or gangs, mainly due to the deportation of Salvadorans living in the United States illegally.
The two programs la mano, dura and mano supe dora created to combat crime have failed, currently El Salvador’s largest source of foreign currency. His remittances sent by Salvadorians abroad, these have been estimated at over 2 billion dollars. There are over 2 million Salvadorans living abroad in countries including the United States, Canada, Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Australia and Sweden. In the 2009 presidential elections FMLN candidate, Carlos Mauricio Funes cartagena, a former journalist won the presidency.
This was the first victory of a leftist party in El Salvador’s history, Funes took over as president June, the 1st 2009, together with Salvador Sanchez Serena’s. Vice president, this recording is a derivative work from Wikipedia for more information. Please visit http://www.Kcc.Hawaii.Edu